XuFancheng Culture Study Center

What is the UN COP biodiversity conference and its significance?

The 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, or COP15. COP 15 is the 15th Conference on World Biodiversity organised by the “Convention on Biological Diversity” (CBD), which is headed by the United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP)

It will be conducted in 2 phases.

  • The COP15 Part-1 was hosted by China at Kunming and took place in a virtual format, from 11-15 October 2021.
  • The COP15 Part-2 (COP-15.2) is set to be concluded in Montreal, Canada, between 5 – 17 December 2022.

"Kunming Declaration"

“Kunming Declaration” was adopted by over 100 countries at the #cop15 high-level conference organised by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity held at Kunming, china on 13 Oct 2021. Signatories stated their intention to develop, adopt and implement an effective post-2020 global biodiversity framework that puts biodiversity on a path to recovery by 2030. The goal is to fully realize the vision of “living in harmony with nature” by 2050.

30 by 30 target: 30% of the Earth’s land and oceans to have protected status by 2030.

The Kunming declaration also includes a fund that is being created by China to fund biodiversity protection actions in developing nations. President Xi Jinping pledged to pump USD 233 million into the new fund.

The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD) is based in Montreal, Canada. Its main function is to assist governments in the implementation of the CBD and its programmes of work, to organize meetings, draft documents, and coordinate with other international organizations and collect and spread information. The Executive Secretary is the head of the Secretariat.

The CBD was ratified on May 22, 1992, and it became operative on December 29, 1993. The Convention, which aims to encourage the preservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of its elements, and the just and equitable distribution of benefits resulting from the use of genetic resources, now has 193 parties. The Convention’s governing body is the COP.

CBD has two supplementary agreements, the Cartagena Protocol and Nagoya Protocol.

  • The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another. It was adopted on 29 January 2000 as a supplementary agreement to the CBD and entered into force on 11 September 2003.
  • The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS) to the Convention on Biological Diversity is another supplementary agreement to the CBD. It provides a transparent legal framework for the effective implementation of one of the three objectives of the CBD: the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. The Nagoya Protocol was adopted on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan, and entered into force on 12 October 2014.


Following the introduction of Agenda 2030, the CBD published a technical note that mapped and identified connections between the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This makes it easier to comprehend how biodiversity contributes to accomplishing the SDGs.

Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) – The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), a new strategy, is being created to direct activities until 2030. The final version of this framework, whose content is currently being considered and negotiated as part of the ongoing COP 15 negotiations, was originally announced in July 2021. A pledge to designate at least 30% of the world’s land and sea as protected areas is one of the ambitious objectives in the draught framework (known as the “30 by 30” initiative). The two main points of dispute between the Parties now centre on reducing agricultural pollution and sharing the advantages of digital sequencing information.

Marine and coastal biodiversity is a major priority of the CBD. In order to determine possibilities for changing the definition of Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) and characterising new areas, a series of expert workshops have been held (2018–2022). These have concentrated on the North, North-West, and South-Eastern Atlantic Oceans, Baltic, Caspian, Black, and Southern and North-East Indian Oceans, Mediterranean, North and South Pacific, Eastern Tropical and Temperate Pacific, Wider Caribbean, and Western Mid-Atlantic Seas. The EBSA procedure, which is based on internationally recognised scientific standards, was followed during the workshop meetings. In order to facilitate the protection and sustainable use of marine biological diversity outside the purview of national jurisdiction, this aims to create an international legally binding instrument (ILBI) under UNCLOS (BBNJ). Area-based planning and decision-making is the main method. [36] It combines Blue Growth scenarios with EBSAs, Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs), and High Seas (Marine Protected Areas). There is a connection to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive of the EU as well.


Biodiversity Day 2022 slogan:  – “Building a shared future for all life”.

2010 was also the International Year of Biodiversity.

2011 to 2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity.

COP 1 was held in Nassau, Bahamas, in 1994.

All 196 nations including #India, #EU, #UK, #China, and #Canada signed the UN Biodiversity treaty in 1992, except #US and 4 member states of the United Nations are not Parties to the CBD, namely: #Andorra, #SouthSudan, the United States of #America and the Holy See (the #Vatican)

Parties to the convention

Signed, but not ratified

Biodiversity Day 2022 slogan in 6 UN languages #COP15 #biodiversity #natureandculture #COP15NatureCultureSummit #UN #montreal #kunming #biodiversityday

Singapore established a detailed National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. The National Biodiversity Centre of Singapore represents Singapore in the Convention for Biological Diversity.

Parallel Event at COP-15.2

Montreal, Canada

The aim of the Nature and Culture Summit is to generate new pathways for intercultural, intergenerational and international cooperation to integrate nature and culture in the implementation of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework, towards the shared vision of living in harmony with nature.

At COP15, the global community will renew its commitment with the next phase of the Joint Programme of Work on the Links between Biological and Cultural Diversity. The Summit is an opportunity to engage in the new elements of the Joint Programme of Work, by providing insight on the role of biocultural diversity in conservation, sustainable use, traditional knowledge, indigenous languages, and others.

The most significant way everyone can make a difference is by altering the way we live. One strategy to safeguard species  around the world is to eat a less intensively farmed diet, which includes consuming less meat and dairy. Intensive agriculture is one of the major causes of biodiversity loss internationally.

Growing plants that are beneficial to insects, mowing the lawn less regularly, and producing less garbage are further ways we can live more sustainably.

Additionally, there are more direct ways to contribute to making the globe a more biodiverse place, such as participating in community science initiatives or urging policymakers to take action.